Why muslims can t date

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. As a new technology, oncofertility faces a whole host of ethical issues within and beyond the realm of religious studies. Within the framework of religious traditions, however, oncofertility faces unique challenges for each religious community. By considering the ethical implications of oncofertility in the context of particular religious communities, we might be able to discuss specific, tangible challenges in a fruitful manner. This chapter will discuss oncofertility in the context of Islamic conceptions of motherhood and Islamic legal discussions of sexuality, paternity, and the right to bear children.

The purpose of this chapter is to think through some of the competing narratives that a Muslim woman might consider as she makes her choices regarding oncofertility. While it true that some Muslims have large families, motherhood is not an essential part of woman in Islamic theology and law. While Muhammad could be an exemplar for women concerning their spirituality, moral character, and ethics, his example was necessarily limited concerning issues strictly pertaining to the female body.

These verses read,. O Consorts of the Prophet! If any of you were guilty of evident unseemly conduct, the Punishment would be doubled to her, and that is easy for Allah. But any of you that is devout in the service of Allah and His Messenger, and works righteousness,- to her shall We grant her reward twice: and We have prepared for her a generous Sustenance Q.

Thus, their sinful deeds would mislead many women, just as their righteous deeds would guide other women. When studying normative Islamic sciences such as Islamic law one must always keep in mind that normative thought does not always translate into Muslim practice. In the case of oncofertility, whereas Islamic law might have an ambivalent attitude toward the new technology, Muslim attitudes might not be as ambivalent due to their particular social and cultural contexts where womanhood is defined by reproductive capacity.

While Islamic law is not a necessary determinate of social mores and practice, it is nevertheless, a useful reference for normative discussion on fertility intervention technology. As with in vitro fertilization IVF , Muslim jurists are mostly concerned with establishing paternity when it comes to technology such as oncofertility. As long as ownership of the ovarian tissue remains with the woman from whom it is removed, and any future eggs are impregnated with sperm from her husband, the legal problems surrounding the new technology are minimal.

For example, patriarchal concerns for paternity is the main reason that adoption is not permitted in Islamic law — a person can become the legal custodian and guardian of , but cannot make paternal claims on that child. Once paternity is established through the husband, however, Islamic law is generally ambivalent toward reproductive technologies. The ambivalence of Islamic law with technologies that enhance fertility is linked to its surprisingly lenient stance on issues related to the conception of womanhood and reproduction.

Sex for pleasure is perfectly acceptable and even meritorious. To this end, birth control is permitted in Islamic law, as long as it carries the consent of both spouses. Until the spirit is breathed into a fetus, the fetus is not considered to have an independent claim on life and is merely an extension of the mother. This is an important question since the preservation of life is considered to be a central objective maqsad of Islamic law. If life is threatened, it is obligatory to preserve it by any means necessary. Although motherhood is considered sacred in Islam, 8 as demonstrated above, it is not considered an essential part of womanhood.

Nevertheless, Islamic law considers offspring of men and women a basic marital right. For this reason, husbands and wives are permitted to divorce each other for infertility and impotence, respectively. Muslim women choosing to undergo oncofertility procedures would face few obstacles from Islamic law. Hence, it would be a serious religious and personal obstacle if Muslim women felt that using technology such as oncofertility to preserve the possibility of having children — when God might have removed this possibility for them by the natural means of disease — meant that they were insufficiently submissive to God.

Pregnancy is a miracle in the case of two of these women because they are barren and in the case of the third because she is a virgin. The two barren women are Sarah, the wife of Abraham, and the unnamed wife of Zachariah. The virgin who miraculously becomes pregnant is Mary, the mother of Jesus. Will I bear when I am an old woman, and my husband here is an old man?

That would indeed be a strange thing! The interaction between Sarah and the angels is not mediated by Abraham. Sarah does not pray to God for a son, but rather a named son — Isaac — is offered to her, unprompted. Upon hearing news of a son, Sarah is not overcome with joy and gratitude. Rather she seems bewildered, dismayed, and worried about having in old age, when neither she nor her husband 13 are young and capable of raising . The second barren and elderly couple who receive miraculously from God are Zachariah and his wife.

According to this narrative, Zachariah is overwhelmed with anxiety about being alone and not having offspring, so he prays to God for a pure child. Although Zachariah had initially prayed to God for a son, acknowledging that he was elderly and infirm and his wife was barren, he is nevertheless amazed when he hears the news of a son. The wife of Zachariah does not make an appearance in this story — all that is known of her is that she is barren. There is no discussion about how she might feel about giving birth at such an old age, or about raising with an elderly, infirm husband.

Still, this story offers a model for pursuing children despite natural impediments. In these stories, having children, despite natural biological impediments such as old age and barrenness, is a miraculous and divine event. Rather, it only increases her in purity. The text implies that this seclusion was motivated by a spiritual quest. Would that I had died before this and been a thing forgotten. When she is able to walk again, Mary returns to her people with in tow.

In order to defend herself, Mary points to her baby, who then speaks to the people with claims of prophethood. In this story, divine intervention manifests itself in the form of an angel who appears to Mary as a well-proportioned man. This man becomes the means by which Mary conceives Jesus.

Further, becoming pregnant in unlikely circumstances did not compromise the chastity or submissiveness to God of any of the above-mentioned women. In fact, these women conceive children as a of their submission to God, who chooses them to conceive prophets. Mary also expresses her submission to God by bearing a son despite the social censure she is likely to face as a result of giving birth out of wedlock.

Human and angelic mediation in these stories do not diminish the creative power of God, but rather reaffirm it. Juridically, the purpose of sex in marriage is not solely procreation, and birth control and abortion are permissible. However, the right to have children is a basic spousal right, and infertility and impotence form legitimate grounds for divorce. The stories of Sarah, the wife of Zachariah, and Mary are incidents of divinely sanctioned unnatural conceptions narrated in a patriarchal context, which raise as many questions as they answer.

Why is barrenness in old age — a natural phenomenon — something that needs to be corrected, fixed, or cured? Still, these stories offer new ways for women to think about their choices when making a decision about their own fertility. They might relate more or less to one model or another or not relate to any of them at all. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Cancer Treat Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC May 3. Ayesha S. Chaudhry A. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Chaudhry, A. Chaudhry: ude. Copyright notice.

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Cancer Treat Res. Introduction As a new technology, oncofertility faces a whole host of ethical issues within and beyond the realm of religious studies. These verses read, O Consorts of the Prophet! Islamic Law on Sex, Paternity, and the Right to Bear Children While Islamic law is not a necessary determinate of social mores and practice, it is nevertheless, a useful reference for normative discussion on fertility intervention technology.

References 1. Ali Abdullah Yusuf. Beltsville, Md: Amana Publications; Serour GI. Bioethics in artificial reproduction in the Muslim world. Sachedina Abdulaziz. Islam and biomedical ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Besides, polygamy is permitted in Islam, so the issue of the donor egg is less problematic than the donor sperm. For additional discussion on the issue of homogenic insemination, see Arbach O.

Ethical considerations in Syria regarding reproduction techniques. Med Law. For more on adoption in Islam, see Inhorn MC.

Why muslims can t date

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