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Nicole Lee works as a paid consultant in the alcohol and other drug sector. She has ly been awarded grants by state and federal governments, NHMRC and other public funding bodies for alcohol and other drug research. MDMA Methylenedioxymethamphetamine , commonly referred to as ecstasy, was manufactured as a potential pharmaceutical early last century. It had some limited use in the s as a therapeutic aid in trauma treatment and in relationship counselling, and more recent studies using MDMA for trauma have shown some promise. Structurally, MDMA is similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and to the hallucinogen mescaline, and so has both stimulant and mildly hallucinogenic effects.
Most problems with recreational MDMA are acute. Dependence and other long-term problems are quite rare. Most fatalities from taking ecstasy are a result of a combination of factors , not just the drug itself. Any unusual or unwanted symptoms experienced while taking ecstasy should be treated as soon as they appear. : Six reasons Australia should pilot 'pill testing' party drugs. In fact, drugs are much more dangerous because they are unregulated, manufactured by backyard chemists in clandestine laboratories.
Pills can contain other more dangerous drugs that mimic the effects of MDMA, and benign substances, such as lactose, as filler agents. Some of the more dangerous contaminants found in pills include PMA paramethoxyamphetamine , which is more toxic at lower doses than ecstasy; N-Ethylpentylone , a cathinone which is a lot more potent than MDMA making it easier to take too much; and NBOMes N-methoxybenzyl , which is more toxic at lower doses than other hallucinogenic drugs and can cause heart attack, renal failure, and stroke.
Sometimes these drug mixes are unexpected and sometimes people take multiple drugs deliberately. : While law makers squabble over pill testing, people should test their drugs at home. Heatstroke or hyperthermia dangerously high body temperature is one of the most common issues among people taking MDMA. MDMA increases body temperature and sweating, and using it is often accompanied by physical activity such as dancing in a hot environment such as a crowded venue or in the summer heat , exacerbating fluid loss.
The effect of ecstasy can be exacerbated by consuming alcohol. Alcohol is a diuretic, so it makes you urinate more and increases dehydration. Dehydration increases risk of heatstroke. Heatstroke can cause brain, heart, kidney and muscle damage, and if left untreated can cause serious complications or death.
If active, people taking MDMA should drink around ml two cups of water an hour and take regular breaks. Isotonic drinks such as Powerade and Gatorade are also OK. People using MDMA can get really thirsty. But if you have too much water the ratio of salts and water in the body becomes unbalanced — basically the level of salt in your body gets too low and your cells start swelling with water. The technical name is hyponatraemia. MDMA is an anti-diuretic, so it makes you retain water, which can increase risk of water intoxication.
People taking ecstasy need to stay hydrated but only replace what is lost through sweating — around ml per hour if active and around ml an hour when inactive. The main action of MDMA in the brain is an increase in serotonin , which among other things is responsible for regulating pro-social behaviour, empathy and optimism. This is why people who have taken MDMA feel connection with and positivity towards others.
It typically occurs when other drugs that also raise serotonin levels other stimulants, antidepressants are taken together with MDMA. s include high body temperature, agitation, confusion, problems controlling muscles, headache and the shakes. People might also experience seizures or loss of consciousness. It can be fatal if the symptoms are left untreated, so if anyone taking MDMA shows any of these s they should be treated immediately.
: Here's why doctors are backing pill testing at music festivals across Australia. More rarely, fatalities have been reported as a result of other health complications after taking ecstasy, especially if the person has pre-existing risk factors, such as high blood pressure or a heart condition.
Complications related to heart failure, liver failure and brain haemorrhage have been reported in people already at high risk of these problems. The of people who die from party drugs is relatively low compared to other drugs such as heroin, alcohol, and pharmaceuticals.
But the media tend to report a higher proportion of these deaths compared to other drugs, increasing the perception of harm. Most of the deaths are not directly from the drug itself but other complications or contaminants. In the absence of a legal, uncontaminated supply of MDMA, when pill testing becomes available in Australia it will at least help people make informed decisions about drug use and reduce the risk of fatalities and other harms.
People often choose not to take their pills, or take smaller amounts, when they discover contaminants. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. But adulterants found in drugs made by at-home chemists can be deadly. Nicole Lee , Curtin University.Why does mdma make you sweat
email: [email protected] - phone:(316) 129-4019 x 1379
Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans