Tea tree chewing sticks side effects

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Miswak is a traditional chewing stick prepared from the roots, twigs, and stem of Salvadora persica and has been used as a natural method for tooth cleaning in many parts of the world for thousands of years. A of scientific studies have demonstrated that the miswak Salvadora persica possesses antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-cariogenic, and anti-plaque properties. Several studies have also claimed that miswak has anti-oxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of a miswak has an immediate effect on the composition of saliva.

Several clinical studies have confirmed that the mechanical and chemical cleansing efficacy of miswak chewing sticks are equal and at times greater than that of the toothbrush. The present article provides a review of the various therapeutic effects of Salvadora persica on oral health, which will help to elucidate the ificance and importance of this indigenous oral hygiene tool. Oral health is an integral part of overall health. Poor oral health is associated with many systemic diseases.

The oral cavity is the major portal of entry, source, and site of many diseases affecting the general health status. Poor oral and craniofacial health affects diet, nutrition, sleep, psychological status, social interaction, school, and work. The most common and modern mechanical method of tooth cleaning is the use of a toothbrush in combination with a dentifrice.

Despite the widespread use of toothbrushes and dentifrices, natural methods of tooth cleaning using chewing sticks are observed in several parts of the world. Chewing sticks are usually taken from plants, shrubs, or trees with high anti-microbial activity. During teeth and oral cleaning with miswak, a pen-like grip is used to hold the stick in one hand, and the brush-end is used with an up and down or rolling motion.

The edge is subsequently cut off and further chewed to expose a fresh end. In this way, the stick can be used for several weeks. Taking into consideration the historical, religious, social, and cultural implications of the use of miswak Salvadora Perscia in the field of oral hygiene, the present article is an attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the various therapeutic effects of miswak Salvadora Persica on oral health and its enormous contribution to the maintenance of oral hygiene.

The existing literature was searched electronically using PubMed, and Google Scholar between the years and July The search was performed using a variety of keywords in different combinations, and only articles published in the English language were included.

A manual search was also completed for relevant articles under this topic. Typical chewing sticks Miswak prepared from Salvadora persica of different diameters. The exact origin of mechanical devices for cleaning teeth is unknown. However, since ancient times and well before the invention of the modern toothbrush, civilized people have used some type of cleaning instrument to clean and preserve their teeth. The first early devices include the tooth stick, referred to as the toothpick, and the wood mop, twig brush, miswak, or siwak.

They have been excavated along with other articles of toiletry in the ancient Babylonian city of Ur, which flourished in approximately BC. The Romans also used toothpicks from the mastic tree Pistacia lentiscus.

It was a wooden stick cut to 5 or 6 inches in length. One end was macerated to separate the fibers to about one quarter of an inch. The Arabs call this tool siwak or miswak. Another possible reason for its use is its contribution to ritual purity. In the early Islamic period, the use of miswak became a part of a cultivated and elegant mode of life. The Prophet Mohammad Peace Be Upon Him strongly recommended the use of miswak and was himself a fervent supporter of its use. According to Muslim commentators of Prophetic narration, the use of miswak was a constant practice of Prophet Mohammad Peace Be Upon Him prior to sleeping, after rising, after entering the house, before and after meals, during fasting, and before recitation of prayers and reading of the holy texts.

Since then, the miswak has been featured prominently in Islamic hygienic jurisprudence. Utilization of the desert plant miswak Salvadora persica is widespread in Saudi Arabia, 26 and young people from Saudi Arabia are increasingly combining modern and traditional oral hygiene methods. Miswak is derived from a plant species of Salvadora persica belonging to the family Salvadoraceae. The full taxonomic classification of Salvadora persica is given in Table 1. It is seldom more than one foot in diameter, reaching a maximum height of 3 meters.

The leaves are small, rounded to ovate, slightly fleshy, thick and succulent, having a strong smell of cress or mustard. The fragrant flowers are small. The fruits are like fleshy berries; small and barely noticeable. They are edible in both fresh and dried form. A variety of natural bioactive components have been identified in Salvadora persica extracts by researchers. These constituents are considered to be essential for good oral and dental hygiene. The name and functions of the different bioactive components are discussed in Table 2. Bioactive components of miswak Salvadora persica and their effects on oral health.

Much effort has focused on examining the antibacterial activity of miswak extracts against a variety of human pathogens. Several studies have shown that miswak Salvadora persica has ificant antimicrobial activity against both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. By using disc diffusion and micro-well dilution assays, Al-Bayati and Sulaiman 30 investigated antimicrobial activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Salvadora persica.

The authors used 7 isolated oral microorganisms to test the activity of the extracts: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Candida albicans. According to both antimicrobial assays, the aqueous extract of Salvadora persica was active against all tested pathogens and showed more inhibitory activity than did the methanol extract, which was resisted by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Among all the tested pathogen, Streptococcus species were the most sensitive to aqueous extract and the highest inhibitory activity was seen against Streptococcus faecalis zone of inhibition: Both extracts had equal antifungal activity against Candida albicans based on the turbidity test MIC: 6. An in vitro study 20 showed that the whole miswak pieces without extraction embedded in agar or suspended above the agar plate had strong antibacterial effects against bacteria implicated in periodontitis and caries progression Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis , and Haemophilus influenzae.

Based on their research, Sofrata et al 31 suggested that benzyl isothiocyanate BITC is the main antibacterial component of Salvadora persica root chewing sticks with a high killing activity against the gram-negative periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The strong and rapid killing also exclusively affects gram-negative bacteria, including medically important pathogens such as Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Haemophilus influenzae.

Poureslami et al 32 conducted 3 in vitro studies including: 1 in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial effects of miswak extract on selected bacteria Streptococcus Sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Eikenella corrodens , and Porphyromonas gingivalis , 2 the antibacterial effects of Iranian toothpaste containing miswak extract against dental plaque in comparison with the placebo toothpaste 3 a comparison of the antibacterial effects on dental plaque between 2 toothpastes containing miswak extract one produced in Iran and the other in Switzerland.

The of 3 studies demonstrated that miswak extract, alone or in combination with toothpaste, can affect the growth of dental plaque bacteria. Therefore, miswak extract can be used in mouth rinses and toothpastes because of its antibacterial effects. A clinical study on the immediate antimicrobial effects of a toothbrush and miswak on cariogenic bacteria was carried out by Almas and Al-Zeid. Therefore, authors concluded that miswak may have an immediate antimicrobial effect and that Streptococcus mutans were more susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of miswak than Lactobacilli.

Ten percent water extraction of Salvadora persica is an effective antimicrobial agent when utilized clinically as an irrigant in the endodontic treatment of teeth with necrotic pulps. The constituent of Salvadora persica , such as N-benzylphenylacetamide, had shown moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli.

It was concluded that miswak Salvadora persica had an antibacterial effect at higher concentrations and that there was no difference in the antibacterial effects of fresh and one-month-old Miswak. AbdElRahman et al 40 assessed whether the crude extracts prepared from the roots and twigs of Salvadora persica inhibited the growth of some selected oral microbes Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Candida albicans.

Compared with the other solvents, the ethanolic extracts showed the strongest antimicrobial activity. Within the ethanolic extracts, the root extract was more potent than the twig extract. The stem-water extract was found to have the lowest potency. In the end, the author concluded that crude miswak extracts showed low to moderate antimicrobial activity compared with standard antimicrobial agents, such as 0.

Fifty percent acqueous extract of bark and the whole extracts of Salvadora persica had antimicrobial effects on Streptococcus mutans. However, no anti-microbial effect was observed on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis , and Candida albicans. Alali et al 42 reported that the volatile oil of Jordanian Salvadora persica stems exhibits potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The diameter of zones of growth inhibition was approximately 13 mm for Escherichia coli , 12 mm for Staphylococcus aureus , 3 mm for Bacillus subtilis , and 3.

Moreover, the volatile oil exhibits ificant activity against resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of growth inhibition of approximately 2. Alireza et al 43 studied the effects of methanolic extracts of Salvadora persica on oral bacterial strains Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus , and Escherichia isolated from saliva.

This was investigated using the agar disc diffusion and microdilution methods. The authors found that a methanolic extract of Salvadora persica was effective in the growth inhibition of all strains tested, although it was ificantly more effective on gram-positive bacteria 6. Studies have indicated that Miswak Salvadora persica possesses antifungal properties. Noumi et al 19 showed that the diluted acetone extract of dry Salvadora persica stems demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata , and Candida parapsilosis strains with a zone of inhibition range of However, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of dry Salvadora persica stems were active only on one oral Candida albicans isolate.

Other strains, such as Pichia jadinii , Candida atlantica , Candida famata , and Candida maritima were resistant to both dry and fresh Salvadora persica stem extracts. From this study, the authors have demonstrated that the dried miswak has a greater antifungal activity against several Candida strains both oral isolates and reference strains than the fresh plant. These indicate that extracts of miswak may contain compounds with therapeutic potential against different Candida strains , and hence, they can potentially be used as therapeutic agents. Renal transplant patients RTPs who used a miswak Salvadora persica for oral hygiene were found to have a ificantly lower prevalence of oral candidiasis compared with other RTPs.

Water- and alcohol-based extract of the plant showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans , and the diameters of the zones of growth inhibition were approximately 9 mm and 11 mm.

Tea tree chewing sticks side effects

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