Added: Rosa Leavitt - Date: 31.10.2021 18:28 - Views: 35467 - Clicks: 2992
Your brain is who you are. The brain is always working, even when you're sleeping. Information from your environment makes its way to the brain, which receives, processes, and integrates it so that you can survive and function under all sorts of changing circumstances and learn from experience.
This information comes from both outside your body like what your eyes see and skin feels and inside like your heart rate and body temperature. The brain is made up of many parts that all work together as a team. Each of these different parts has a specific and important job to do. When drugs enter the brain, they interfere with its normal tasks and can eventually lead to changes in how well it works. Learn more about the brain-body connection.
The brain is a complex communications network of billions of neurons, neurotransmitters, and receptors. Networks of neurons pass messages back and forth thousands of times a minute within the brain, spinal column, and nerves. These nerve networks control everything we feel, think, and do. For example, when you want to go up the stairs, this message system will tell you to lift your foot onto the first step and so on. Understanding these networks helps scientists learn how drugs affect the brain.
The networks are made up of:. To send a message, a nerve cell releases a chemical neurotransmitter into the space separating two nerve cells, called the synapse. The neurotransmitter crosses the synapse and attaches to proteins receptors on the receiving nerve cell. This causes changes in the receiving nerve cell, and the message is delivered. As the neurotransmitter approaches the nearby neuron, it attaches to a special site on that neuron called a receptor.
A neurotransmitter and its receptor operate like a key and lock a very specific mechanism makes sure that each receptor will forward the right message only after interacting with the right kind of neurotransmitter. Drugs are chemicals. Different drugs—because of their chemical structures—work differently. We know there are at least two ways drugs work in the brain:. Some drugs, like marijuana and heroin , have chemical structures that mimic a neurotransmitter that naturally occurs in our bodies.
However, they don't work the same way as a natural neurotransmitter, and the neurons wind up sending abnormal messages through the brain, which can cause problems both for our brains and our bodies. Other drugs, such as cocaine and methamphetamine , cause nerve cells to release too much dopamine, a natural neurotransmitter, or prevent the normal recycling of dopamine. This le to exaggerated messages in the brain, causing problems with communication channels. Scientists used to assume that the rush of dopamine alone caused the feeling of euphoria happiness during drug use, but they now know it is more complicated than that.
Normally, the reward circuit responds to healthy, pleasurable activities by releasing the neurotransmitter dopamine, which teaches other parts of the brain to repeat those activities. Drugs take control of this system, releasing large amounts of dopamine—first in response to the drug but later mainly in response to other cues associated with the drug—like being with people you used drugs with, or being in places where you used drugs. The brain remembers this feeling and sends out an intense motivation to seek and use the drug again.
So dopamine does not cause the rush of feelings; instead it reinforces the desire to use drugs. Our brains are wired to make sure we will repeat survival activities, like eating, by connecting those activities with feeling good. Whenever this reward circuit is kick-started, the brain notes that something important is happening that needs to be remembered, and teaches us to do it again and again, without thinking about it. After repeated drug use, the brain starts to adjust to the surges of dopamine. Neurons may begin to reduce the of dopamine receptors or simply make less dopamine.
The result is less dopamine aling in the brain—like turning down the volume on the dopamine al. Because some drugs are toxic, some neurons also may die. As a result, the ability to feel pleasure is reduced. The person feels flat, lifeless, and depressed, and is unable to enjoy things that once brought pleasure. Dopamine encourages the brain to repeat the pleasurable activity of drug taking to feel good again. Now the person needs drugs just to feel normal, an effect known as tolerance. Drug use can eventually lead to dramatic changes in neurons and brain circuits.
These changes can stay even after the person has stopped taking drugs. This is more likely to happen when a drug is taken over and over again. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to take drugs or alcohol repeatedly, despite the harm they cause. However, repeated drug use can change the brain, driving a person to seek out and use drugs over and over, despite negative effects such as stealing, losing friends, family problems, or other physical or mental problems brought on by drug use.
This is addiction. A combination of factors related to your genes, environment, and your personal development increases the chance that taking drugs will lead to addiction. These include:. Yes, deaths from drug overdose have been rising steadily over the last decade, largely due to increases in misuse of opioids. In , more than 70, people died from a drug overdose, ificantly more than the 63, people who died the year before. More than three out of five of those drug overdose deaths involved some type of opioid, either prescription pain reliever, heroin, or human-made opioids like fentanyl.
Among young people ages , just over 5, deaths from a drug overdose occurred in In addition, death can occur from the long-term effects of drugs. For example, long term use of tobacco products can cause cancer, which may result in death. Learn more about drug overdoses in youth. Yes, there are treatments to help manage addiction, but there is no cure. It is considered a chronic disease, meaning it lasts a long time and needs to be managed with regular treatment.
If people follow treatment plans, they can go for many years leading healthy lives. It can be similar to other chronic conditions that people learn to manage, like diabetes or heart disease. Scientific research has shown that 13 basic principles are the foundation for effective drug addiction treatment. Generally, there are two types of treatment for drug addiction:.
Most people who have become addicted to drugs need long term treatment and, many times, repeated treatments—much like a person who has asthma needs to constantly watch the effects of medication and exercise. Even when someone relapses and begins using drugs again, they should not give up hope they might need to change to a different treatment plan.
In fact, setbacks are likely. Most people go into drug treatment either because a court ordered them to do so or because loved ones wanted them to seek treatment. Many people are tired of addiction and its problems, and chose to go into treatment. Others are ordered into treatment by a judge or under pressure from family members. The s listed below may suggest a developing problem, which you should discuss with an adult you trust:. If a friend is using drugs, you might have to step away from the friendship for a while.
It is important to protect your own mental health and not put yourself in situations where drugs are being used. Researchers with the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study are studying the teen brain to learn more about how it grows This lesson, provides scientific information about teen brain development and the effect of drugs and alcohol use on the brain. These community activities are deed to help students in grades 6 through 12 learn about the effects of drug use Content on this site is available for your use and may be reproduced in its entirety without permission from NIDA.
Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Brain and Addiction. Expand All How does your brain communicate? How do drugs affect your brain? The Repeat Effect Our brains are wired to make sure we will repeat survival activities, like eating, by connecting those activities with feeling good. Long-Term Effects Drug use can eventually lead to dramatic changes in neurons and brain circuits. What is drug addiction? What factors increase the risk for addiction?
These include: Home and family. Peers and school. Friends and acquaintances who use drugs can sway young people to try drugs for the first time. Academic failure or poor social skills can also put a person at risk for drug use. Early use. Although taking drugs at any age can lead to addiction, research shows that the earlier a person begins to use drugs, the more likely they are to progress to more serious use. This may reflect the harmful effect that drugs can have on the developing brain. It also may be the result of early biological and social factors, such as genetics, mental illness, unstable family relationships, and exposure to physical or sexual abuse.
Still, the fact remains that early drug use is a strong indicator of problems ahead—among them, substance use and addiction. Method of use.Evil effects of drugs
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Positive and Negative Consequences of Continued Drug Use