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With single parenting and cohabitation when a couple shares a residence but not a marriage becoming more acceptable in recent years, people may be less motivated to get married. The institution of marriage is likely to continue, but some patterns of marriage will become outdated as new patterns emerge. In this context, cohabitation contributes to the phenomenon of people getting married for the first time at a later age than was typical in earlier generations Glezer People in the United States typically equate marriage with monogamy , when someone is married to only one person at a time.
In many countries and cultures around the world, however, having one spouse is not the only form of marriage. In a majority of cultures 78 percent , polygamy , or being married to more than one person at a time, is accepted Murdock , with most polygamous societies existing in northern Africa and east Asia Altman and Ginat Instances of polygamy are almost exclusively in the form of polygyny.
Polygyny refers to a man being married to more than one woman at the same time. The reverse, when a woman is married to more than one man at the same time, is called polyandry. The reasons for the overwhelming prevalence of polygamous societies are varied but they often include issues of population growth, religious ideologies, and social status. While the majority of societies accept polygyny, the majority of people do not practice it. Often fewer than 10 percent and no more than 25—35 percent of men in polygamous cultures have more than one wife; these husbands are often older, wealthy, high-status men Altman and Ginat The average plural marriage involves no more than three wives.
Negev Bedouin men in Israel, for example, typically have two wives, although it is acceptable to have up to four Griver As urbanization increases in these cultures, polygamy is likely to decrease as a result of greater access to mass media, technology, and education Altman and Ginat In the United States, polygamy is considered by most to be socially unacceptable and it is illegal.
The act of entering into marriage while still married to another person is referred to as bigamy and is considered a felony in most states. It is estimated that there are about 37, FLDS involved in polygamy in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, but that has shown a steady decrease in the last years Useem Muslims, however, are an emerging group with an estimated 20, practicing polygamy. Again, polygamy among U. Muslims is uncommon and occurs only in approximately 1 percent of the population Useem For now polygamy among U. Courtship is the traditional dating period before engagement and marriage or long term commitment if marriage is not allowed.
During a courtship, a couple or group gets to know each other and decides if there will be an engagement. Courting includes activities such as dating where couples or groups go together for some activity e. Courting can also take place without personal contact, especially with modern technology. Virtual dating, chatting on-line, sending text messages, conversing over the telephone, instant messaging, writing letters, and sending gifts are all modern forms of courting.
Courtship varies both by time period and by region of the world. One way courtship varies is in the duration; courting can take days or years. In the United Kingdom, a poll of 3, engaged or married couples suggested an average duration between first meeting and engagement of 2 years and 11 months. While the date is fairly casual in most European-influenced cultures, in some traditional societies, courtship is a highly structured activity, with very specific formal rules.
In some societies, the parents or community propose potential partners, and then allow limited dating to determine whether the parties are suited in fact, this was common in the U. In more closed societies, courtship is virtually eliminated altogether by the practice of arranged marriages, where partners are chosen for young people, typically by their parents or in the absence of parents local authorities. Forbidding experimental and serial courtship and sanctioning only arranged matches is partly a means of guarding the chastity of young people and partly a matter of furthering family interests, which in such cultures may be considered more important than individual romantic preferences.
Another variation of courtship is the bundling tradition, which likely originated in Scandinavia and was carried to the U. Bundling involved potential mates spending the night together in the same bed, though the couple was not supposed to engage in sexual relations. This practice ceased in the late 19th Century. In earlier centuries, young adults were expected to court with the intention of finding marriage partners, rather than for social reasons.
However, by the s, dating for fun was becoming an expectation, and by the s, it was assumed that any popular young person would have lots of dates. This form of dating, though, was usually more chaste than is seen today, since pre-marital sex was not considered the norm even though it was widespread.
As a result of social changes spurred by the sexual revolution of the s and s, the taboo of sex during dating began to wane. This can be seen in the rise in internet dating, speed dating or gradual exclusivity dating a. Courtship is used by a of theorists to explain gendering processes and sexual identity. Both Moore and Perper argued that, contrary to popular beliefs, courtship is normally triggered and controlled by women, driven mainly by non-verbal behaviors to which men respond. Feminist scholars, however, continue to regard courtship as a socially constructed and male-focused process organized to subjugate women.
Systematic research into courtship processes inside the workplace as well two year studies examining norms in different international settings continue to support a view that courtship is a social process that socializes all sexes into accepting forms of relationship that maximize the chances of successfully raising children.
This may negatively impact women, particularly those seeking independence and equality at work. Since the sexual revolution in the s, non-marital sexual relationships have become increasingly acceptable in the United States. The prevalence of one-night stands and non-committal relationships contribute to what sociologists call a hookup culture. A hookup culture is one that accepts and encourages casual sexual encounters, including one-night stands and other related activity, which focus on physical pleasure without necessarily including emotional bonding or long-term commitment.
It is generally associated with Western late adolescent behavior and, in particular, American college culture. The term hookup has an ambiguous definition because it can indicate kissing or any form of physical sexual activity between sexual partners. Sociologist Lisa Wade defines hook-up culture in this video. Nationally, women now out men in college enrollment by 4 to 3, leading some researchers to argue that the gender imbalance fosters a culture of hooking up because men, as the minority and limiting factor, hold more power in the sexual marketplace and use it to pursue their preference of casual sex over long-term relationships.
However, most students overestimate the amount of hookups in which their peers engage. Roughly one half will occasionally hookup, and one-third of students do not hook up at all. The median of hookups for a graduating senior on a college campus is seven, and the typical college student acquires two new sexual partners during their college career.
Module 8: Marriage and Family. Search for:. Reading: Marriage and Courtship Patterns Marriage Patterns With single parenting and cohabitation when a couple shares a residence but not a marriage becoming more acceptable in recent years, people may be less motivated to get married. Courtship Courtship is the traditional dating period before engagement and marriage or long term commitment if marriage is not allowed. A Hook-up Culture? Practice 1. A woman being married to two men would be an example of: monogamy polygyny polyandry cohabitation.
Show Answer c. Show Glossary bigamy: the act of entering into marriage while still married to another person cohabitation: the act of a couple sharing a residence while they are not married courtship: the traditional dating period before engagement and marriage monogamy: the act of being married to only one person at a time polyandry: a form of marriage in which one woman is married to more than one man at one time polygamy: the state of being committed or married to more than one person at a time polygyny: a form of marriage in which one man is married to more than one woman at one time.
s and Attributions. CC d content, Shared ly.Dating courting process
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How is courtship different than dating?