Added: Muhammed Heckart - Date: 13.01.2022 00:11 - Views: 38337 - Clicks: 6700
The fine powder in small packets doesn't even resemble the large crystals intended for a soak in the tub. The drug merely borrows the name of an innocuous product so it can be sold openly. In , poison centers fielded calls from hospital emergency departments for advice on how to treat bath salts abuse. Sold under names such as White Lightning, Cloud 9, or Ivory Wave, bath salts represent a category of illicit drug that typically contains combinations of various synthetic cathinones, including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone MDPV , mephedrone, and methylone.
People were abusing a synthetic cathinone in Russia and eastern Europe for several decades before the drug appeared in western Europe and the United Kingdom in the s. And cathinone, an alkaloid derived from east Africa's khat plant, has been chewed by people for hundreds of years for its stimulant effect.
The effects of the drugs also vary based on the route of administration; they can be swallowed, snorted, injected, or inserted into the rectum or vagina. The most worrisome effects are the extreme neurological and psychiatric changes—paranoia, terrifying hallucinations, psychosis, self-destructive and violent behavior—that occur in users of bath salts. Despite these effects, some users continue to use the drugs. Moreover, the effects are long lasting. Clin Toxicol. The enduring high and extreme behavior may stem in part from the insidious combination of the compounds in bath salts.
While mephedrone acts like methamphetamines in increasing dopamine concentrations, MDPV mimics the way in which cocaine inhibits the reuptake of dopamine, resulting in the brain staying flooded with dopamine, according to research by Louis De Felice, PhD, professor of physiology and biophysics at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine in Richmond. The long-term neurological effects of bath salts are likely to be as damaging as those of methamphetamines and cocaine—or worse.
In July, President Obama ed legislation that adds MDPV and mephedrone, along with 29 other compounds used to produce synthetic marijuana and hallucinogens, to the controlled substances listed as Schedule I drugs. And although several states had acted earlier to make the components of bath salts illegal, the drug was easily obtained at gas stations, adult bookstores, convenience stores, smoke shops, head shops, and truck stops.
Two weeks after the federal ban went into effect, Drug Enforcement Administration agents seized packets of synthetic cathinones and 4. The hour raid in July involved US cities and resulted in 91 arrests. But bath salts continue to be sold on the Internet and in retail stores, camouflaged under names such as stain remover, research chemicals, plant food, and insect repellent.
In addition, drug makers can easily skirt the ban on MDPV and mephedrone by turning to other cathinone derivatives, of which there are many. Unlike drugs of abuse such as ecstasy, which is consistently made of the synthetic compound MDMA 3,4-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine , the composition and dose of bath salts can vary tremendously, making diagnosis challenging and leading to greater risks of overdose and adverse reactions.
The patient's condition is also not a reliable guide. Am J Med. Because bath salts are so potent, high doses of sedatives may be necessary to prevent users from harming themselves and others. In addition, users of bath salts may be taking other drugs simultaneously. Should bath salts wane in popularity, authorities say they have no doubt new psychoactive deer drugs will take their place.
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A Trip on “Bath Salts” Is Cheaper Than Meth or Cocaine But Much More Dangerous