Bareback sex with a married woman

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. This survey represents only a small part of the questionnaire, which is difficult to separate from the remainder of the survey. Some individuals who organized this survey used the data for more in-depth studies. To obtain the entire data set in our study, please e-mail Xiufang Li lxfqd In China, the vast majority of MSM feel forced to marry or plan to marry women, according to traditional Chinese culture.

Our investigation of this group of the women is a preliminary study that aims to understand the sexual health problems of tongqi and related factors. This study relied on website mobilization and was funded by tongqi. The data were collected using questionnaire software. Average respondent age was More than half of respondents had had sex before marriage, and one-third of those women had sex partners other than their husbands. In addition, Among participants tested, 5. A total Measures must be taken to protect the rights and interests of tongqi in mainland China. The online version of this article doi Women who have regular sexual relations with men who have sex with men MSM include three subgroups: 1 women who have sex with MSM to whom they are married; 2 those who had sex with MSM to whom they were married but who they later divorced; and 3 women who have regular sexual relations with MSM but who are unmarried female friends.

Today, there is a more open attitude toward homosexuality in western countries, with some passing legislation to legalize homosexual marriage. In contrast to these countries, homosexual marriage is illegal in China as well as in many other developing eastern countries. As a result, the status of heterosexual women who are married to MSM varies among different countries worldwide.

In developed countries such as the United States or Switzerland, some MSM have regular sex with women or marry women with a different sexual orientation. The political, cultural, and economic backgrounds of such countries permit greater individual freedom of choice and legal protection [ 1 , 2 ]. Few women have regular sex with MSM, and surveys of these women are focused mainly on qualitative psychology [ 3 — 5 ].

Future strategies for the prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS among such women should be more targeted [ 6 ]. A statistical analysis of a large sample of MSM in India indicated that Data from a survey of MSM in Tanzania who did not use injection drugs showed that Evidence from recent surveys in China has revealed that the marriage status of MSM to women is ificantly different from that in Europe and the United States but is similar to that in many developing countries [ 12 , 13 ].

It is worth noting that as a very important group closely related to MSM, tongqi receive little attention and support, a phenomenon that is contrary to the requirements of the theory of social construction [ 15 ]. Based on this theory, we conducted a survey of tongqi from to that aimed to understand their physical and mental health problems, marital status, and influencing factors.

This organization provides services to tongqi such as psychological counseling, support, and legal advice for divorce. Women who participated in the survey were required to meet three conditions: 1 they had had regular sex with MSM this included in-GWs, ex-GWs, and GGFs ; 2 they had confirmed that their sex partners were not heterosexual and had had sex with other men; and 3 they had registered on the Tongqi Homeland website at least 1 month before the survey began.

Research assistants provided the women with detailed information about the survey and obtained verbal informed consent. Women consented to participate in the survey anonymously, so records by name were not maintained. A one-on-one mode of recruitment was used for the survey. Subjects were identified by phone or using the online platform. User keys that could only be used with one computer were automatically generated for all subjects. Links to the questionnaires were not sent over public Internet servers but rather were sent directly to subjects using instant messaging software such as QQ.

Surveys were automatically saved and remained active for several hours until completion. User keys were automatically canceled after a questionnaire was completed and submitted. The survey remained active for 3 months from April to June The third involved the use of condoms and whether participants used condoms during vaginal, oral, or anal sex; the frequency of condom use; and whether participants would change their habitual condom use during sex after learning that their sex partners were MSM.

Fourth, the topic of abortion was approached by asking whether participants had had an abortion and whether they knew that their sex partners were MSM when deciding to have an abortion. As for sex education and the right to sex, we asked the following questions: When participants were told that their sex partners are MSM, did they believe that being MSM was a common phenomenon? A total surveys were returned, of which were valid. The average age of participants was Most participants came from urban areas Before marriage, more than half Of those women, only A total of Among participants, One-tenth of participants were abused during sex intercourse 9.

One-fifth of tongqi had ly had sex once or twice per week One-third of tongqi These women reported that the main reasons for engaging in extramarital sex included: 1 to satisfy sexual desire They were asked about their attitudes using the following statements related to STDs and HIV: 1 Normal genitalia in men means that they have no venereal diseases. The types of STDs infections reported by participants included condyloma acuminatum After the survey, Four A high proportion of tongqi never used condoms during vaginal sex After learning that their sex partners were MSM, the frequency of consistent condom use increased from Of these, In addition, most women felt that marrying an MSM is harmful to women As a result, a high percentage of tongqi believed that measures should be taken to protect the rights of women and MSM, including improving education about sexuality Finally, This survey of women whose regular sex partners were MSM represents original exploratory research of sex and reproductive health among tongqi in mainland China.

Traditional Chinese culture highly advocates heterosexual monogamous relationships, with procreation considered the main purpose of sex and marriage [ 16 ]. Therefore, nearly all MSM feel obligated to marry women. This survey of women who were married to and whose sex partners were MSM confirmed this fact.

In many surveys of MSM during recent years in China, social scholars have pointed out that unmarried MSM generally choose traditional marriage regardless of their true wishes [ 18 ]. There are some uncertain factors when estimating the of tongqi in China. According to a population sample of the National Bureau of Statistics of China in , the of men whose first marriage was to a woman was According to data of Pan and Liu et al. In addition, there are many women who have sex with men but are unmarried; thus, it can be estimated that there are nearly 10 million tongqi in mainland China.

Our survey revealed that the health problems of tongqi are often ignored for extended periods by medical and health care professionals. Sex discrimination the belief that women are inferior to men has been a part of traditional Chinese culture since ancient times.

This belief has a powerful and widespread influence on Chinese people. The principles of love and marriage are established by the patriarchal authority of the husband, attitudes of male chauvinism women are expected to show obedience to the father before marriage then obedience to the husband after marriage, the husband controls the wife, and so on , and heterosexism [ 20 ]. These often result in stigmatization by sex, placing women at a disadvantage with respect to physical and mental health; their needs, such as an equal right to sex, are usually ignored.

Some in the MSM community are firmly opposed to conducting surveys of tongqi for fear of discrimination because of their sex orientation [ 21 ]. Thus, carrying out relevant surveys is usually met with great resistance. In the last year, men who performed oral sex for women during sexual intercourse ed for A total 8. The incidence of self-reported STDs among heterosexual people was 2. A total 9.

This survey revealed that sex behaviors were clearly different for tongqi after becoming the sex partners of MSM. A survey of MSM in Nigeria who had had anal sex revealed that Among those MSM, Bisexual sex among MSM was related to being married to or living with women [ 22 ].

This study proved that the level of risk for STD infection among this group of women was high, similar to that of MSM. It is worth noting that the knowledge possessed by tongqi about these risks is far from being effective to prevent and treat STDs and HIV, with only a few women having undergone testing.

In this study, most tongqi still had a negative attitude toward STDs or HIV testing, even after having received appropriate information. After learning that their partner was an MSM and having acquired some understanding about the relationship between being an MSM and STDs, some women stated that they would reduce sexual intercourse and increase the use of condoms to prevent sexually transmitted diseases; however, the risks of infection associated with premarital and extramarital sexual behavior remain.

This survey highlighted that most tongqi in our sample were quite positive about sex education. Our study also revealed the important fact that although only a handful of the women surveyed understood that modern science considers same-sex love to be a normal phenomenon within a minority group, most women in the sample were quite positive about sex education owing to their own unique experiences in marriage.

A high percentage of the tongqi in our study realized that it was important to legally protect the rights of those with a different sex orientation and gender. Some surveys in China have introduced a perception of MSM that is in the interest of sustainable social development and have explained preliminarily the relationship between the AIDS epidemic among MSM and the protection of human rights [ 30 — 32 ].

Today, the lack of awareness about different types of interdependence, interaction, and mutually supportive relationships with respect to sex orientation and gender discrimination can result in the emergence of various human health problems. This situation could be changed by challenging social ignorance, providing women with support services, creating a safer environment for women, reducing the vulnerability of women through policy reforms, and other similar approaches.

Organizations of women and gender in China have reported that gender inequality is the most common type of discrimination and that the intersection between marriage and sexual orientation serves to place women at the greatest disadvantage because multiple social identities must be maintained. These fit with various characteristics of Chinese women whose regular sex partners are MSM. Medical and health care staff in mainland China would benefit from the vigorous promotion of bioethics education on gender and sex equality and protection of the rights and interests of tongqi , to improve awareness about the health of this group.

With greater openness and awareness about human rights in Chinese society, it is expected that the of women who marry MSM will decrease, as will the occurrence of associated health problems. It should be mentioned that our analysis was from a methodological point of view, which has limitations for the survey of a small part of this social group [ 15 ]. The participants in our survey were not randomly selected but were drawn from volunteers via a website. Our survey leaves many questions unresolved. It is conceivable that further social changes will emerge, enabling larger sample surveys to be conducted in the future that address the physical and mental health of tongqi in China.

In traditional Chinese culture, procreation is considered to be the main purpose of sex and marriage; therefore, nearly all MSM feel obligated to marry women. Most of the tongqi surveyed in the present study did not know that their sex partners were MSM before getting married.

One-tenth of participants were abused during sexual intercourse.

Bareback sex with a married woman

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Journal of Cardiovascular Disease and Medicine