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Rhodes 3. Competing Interests: None declared. To assess the associations with depressive symptoms, we performed descriptive and bivariate analyses, followed by multiple logistic regression. Men in the sample tended to be young mean age About half Using the short form Conformity to Masculine Norms instrument, their mean masculinity score was More than one-quarter of participants Multiple logistic regression models showed among this sample of immigrant Latino men in the Southeast, traditional masculine norms—but not perceived discrimination nor acculturation—were associated with clinically ificant depressive symptoms.
Our suggest a potential future avenue for intervention research: testing whether changing gender norms could result in improvements to mental health. Depression is a major mental health issue in the United States. In , approximately In nationally representative studies, men are consistently less likely to report a recent major depressive episode than women. In , 8. Although the true prevalence of depression is similar between Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites, 3 Latinos are less likely to seek help for mental health concerns and to receive appropriate treatment.
Among immigrant Latino men in the United States, experiences of discrimination, idealization of rigid traditional norms of masculinity, and the stress associated with crossing between distinct cultures may contribute to poor mental health, including depression. Prior research has established a link between perceived discrimination and mental health, 7 — 10 and between acculturative stress and mental health 3 , 7 , 11 for Latino men.
Other research suggests a link between gender norms and mental health. For immigrant Latino men, another potential point of discordance between ideal and enacted roles relates to immigration. The migration experience itself may involve violence or trauma for some of these men. Once in the United States, immigrants, particularly those who lack legal documentation, are further marginalized through both overt and hidden means, including exclusion from equitable opportunities for education, jobs, housing, and social status. With the recent rapid growth of the US Latino population, North Carolina is a new settlement state for immigrant Latinos.
North Carolina was home to an estimated 75, Latinos in , growing to , in and just over 1 million Latino residents in , reflecting growth rates exceeding neighboring southern states. Since much of the research on immigrant Latinos in the United States has been conducted in established Latino communities in California, New York, Texas, and Florida, little is currently known about the determinants of depression in new settlement states—places that may have limited time or capacity to integrate and build equitable opportunities for a newer and growing Latino population.
Drawing on prior empirical research on the mental health of Latino men and conceptual models of gender role conflict, we deed the current analysis of cross-sectional data. To our knowledge, no research to date has examined how these measures tly relate to mental health among Latino men in a new settlement state.
For the current analysis, we focused on the participants with baseline data. The dichotomous dependent variable was clinically ificant depressive symptoms, as measured by a score of 16 or higher out of 20 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression CES-D scale. We measured acculturation using the item Short Acculturation Scale for Latinos SASH , 24 which assesses language use, media, and ethnic socialization using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 point only Spanish to 5 points only English ; higher scores indicate greater acculturation to US mainstream culture score range For masculine gender norms, we used a item short form of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory CMNI , 25 , 26 which evaluates conformity to a variety of traditional masculine gender norms.
Response options are on a 4-point Likert scale from strongly disagree 0 to strongly agree 3 , and items are summed to create a scale score ranging from 0 to We used self-report items to measure demographic characteristics including age, education, income, employment, and country of origin. We examined sample characteristics using descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages, or means and standard deviations. We chose control variables age, age at immigration, and education for entry into the model based on theory and extant literature.
As shown in Table 1 , the immigrant Latino men in the study group tended to be young, with a mean age of Most were relatively recent immigrants, with More than three-quarters of participants Their mean Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory score was In bivariate analyses not shown , conformity to masculine norms and acculturation were associated with clinically ificant depressive symptoms. Greater conformity to masculine norms and lower acculturation were independently associated with greater odds of depressive symptoms. Perceived discrimination due to ethnicity and due to race suggested an association in the predicted direction depressive symptoms increasing as either form of discrimination increased but were nonificant in bivariate analyses.
The of multiple logistic regression modelling are shown in Table 2. After controlling for age, age at immigration, and education, traditional masculine norms, but not perceived discrimination nor acculturation, remained associated with clinically ificant depressive symptoms: AOR 1. In this study group of young, immigrant Latino men in North Carolina, a new settlement state, we found a high prevalence of clinically ificant depressive symptoms in the past week, with more than one-quarter of men reporting these symptoms.
These men also reported high levels of perceived discrimination due to their ethnicity or their race, with more than half reporting ethnicity-based discrimination and more than one-third reporting race-based discrimination. We also found low levels of acculturation and moderately high levels of endorsement of traditional masculine norms. In contrast with prior studies, our adjusted regression model showed that discrimination and acculturation were not associated with depressive symptoms in this group of recent immigrant Latinos in North Carolina.
However, adherence to traditional masculine norms, as measured by CMNI score, is ificantly associated with depressive symptoms. The high prevalence of clinically ificant depression among our sample is of potential concern. There is a need for mental health services to meet the needs of immigrant Latinos. Unmet mental health needs can have serious and lasting consequences for the individuals experiencing depression eg, problems at school, with jobs, and within relationships; unhealthy coping mechanisms including substance use and violence , their families, communities, and society at large.
From the perspective of gender role conflict, our findings underscore the primacy of norms of masculinity in predicting depressive symptoms among young, recent immigrant Latino men. The of this study should be interpreted with a few limitations in mind. First, this was a cross-sectional analysis with a small, relatively homogeneous sample. As the analysis was cross-sectional, we were unable to ascertain risk or determine causality. In a more socioeconomically diverse and larger sample, we would be able to test whether SES moderates the association between conformity to masculine norms and depressive symptoms.
It is possible that holding traditional masculine norms manifests as depressive symptoms more strongly for low SES men compared with higher SES men. Future research should examine depressive symptoms in more socioeconomically diverse sample of immigrant Latino men to explore whether the traditional masculine norms-depressive symptoms association holds across socioeconomic groups. Regarding understanding how traditional norms of masculinity are associated with mental health outcomes including depressive symptoms, our study included one measure of traditional masculine norms, the CMNI.
Future multi-component interventions to improve mental health care access and treat depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino men may include components to address masculinity. Conclusions Our suggest a potential future avenue for intervention research: testing whether changing gender norms could result in improvements to mental health. Introduction Depression is a major mental health issue in the United States. Study Variables The dichotomous dependent variable was clinically ificant depressive symptoms, as measured by a score of 16 or higher out of 20 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression CES-D scale.
Data Analysis We examined sample characteristics using descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages, or means and standard deviations. Participant Characteristics As shown in Table 1 , the immigrant Latino men in the study group tended to be young, with a mean age of Table 1. Bivariate Associations In bivariate analyses not shown , conformity to masculine norms and acculturation were associated with clinically ificant depressive symptoms.
Multivariate Analysis The of multiple logistic regression modelling are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Discussion In this study group of young, immigrant Latino men in North Carolina, a new settlement state, we found a high prevalence of clinically ificant depressive symptoms in the past week, with more than one-quarter of men reporting these symptoms.
Study Limitations The of this study should be interpreted with a few limitations in mind. References 1. Depression care in the United States: too little for too few. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Disparity in depression treatment among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Psychiatr Serv. Antidepressant use among persons aged 12 and over: united States, Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. Moradi B, Risco C. J Couns Psychol. Appl Dev Sci. Discrimination-related stress effects on the development of internalizing symptoms among Latino adolescents. Child Dev. Acculturative stress and diminishing family cohesion among recent Latino immigrants. J Immigr Minor Health. Coleman D. Traditional masculinity as a risk factor for suicidal ideation: cross-sectional and prospective evidence from a study of young adults. Arch Suicide Res. Narratives of masculinity and depression.
Men Masculinities. Griffith DM. Ethn Dis. University of Royal Holloway London Men from ethnic minorities take longer to recover from mental illness, study finds. Last accessed July 15, from www. Depression and anxiety among first-generation immigrant Latino youth: key correlates and implications for future research.Asian man is seeking Winston-Salem or latino women
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